At birth, a newborn baby is blind; he can see light and dark and nothing more. This is Stage I, and at this point the baby has only a light reflex.
As he matures, he begins to see outline. This is the very beginning of seeing. This is Stage II.
When a baby begins to see and respond to details, such a child has developed useful vision. This is Stage III.
Some have no light reflex and cannot see light. They are below Stage I. This is called blind. Some have only a light reflex and can see only light and dark. This is also called blind.
Children beyond one year of age who are not able to see detail can truly be said to be functionally blind. Some see only outline; these children do not yet have vision that is in any way useful to them, since their visual needs are much greater at one year and beyond than their needs would have been at the age when it is normal to see only outline. This is called functionally blind.
For a child at Stage II, I, or below, who is one year of age or older, to be able to see detail and thus to have useful vision for the first time is an occasion for great rejoicing. When this occurs, it is true to say that the blind or the functionally blind are now seeing.
Of the 416 children who were blind, 350 (84%) saw for the first time and 301 children learned to read. (They ranged in age 8 months to 22 years 1 month.)